Critical Reasoning Practice Questions (Solved) - Hemant Malhotra

  • "If the forest continues to disappear at its present pace, the koala will approach extinction" said the biologist. "So all that is needed to save the koala is to stop deforestation" said the politician.
    which one of the following statement is consistent with the biologist's claim but not with the politician's claim?
    a) Deforestation continues and the koala becomes extinct.
    b) deforestation is stopped and the koala becomes extinct.
    c) Reforestation begins and the koala survives
    d) deforestation is slowed and the koala survives
    e) deforestation is slowed and the koala approaches extinction

    A - Doesn't say anything about the Politician's claim. Eliminated.
    C - Consistent with both the biologist's and pol's claim. Eliminated.
    D - Same as C.
    E - Not consistent with either of the arguments. Eliminated.
    B - Biologist didn't say anything about the slow rate or what would happen if deforestation is stopped.
    so B is the best choice.

    Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election and voters blame the scandal on all parties about equally, virtually all incumbents, from whatever party, seeking re-election are returned to office. However, when voters blame such a scandal on only one party, incumbents from that party are likely to be defeated by challengers from other parties. The proportion of incumbents who seek re-election is high and remarkably constant from election to election.
    If the voters’ reactions are guided by a principle, which one of the following principles would best account for the contrast in reactions described above?
    (A) Whenever one incumbent is responsible for one major political scandal and another incumbent is responsible for another, the consequences for the two incumbents should be the same.
    (B) When a major political scandal is blamed on incumbents from all parties, that judgement is more accurate than any judgement that incumbents from only on party are to blame.
    (C) Incumbents who are rightly blamed for a major political scandal should not seek re-election, but if they do, they should not be returned to office.
    (D) Major political scandals can practically always be blamed on incumbents, but whether those incumbents should be voted out of office depends on who their challengers are.
    (E) When major political scandals are less the responsibility of individual incumbents than of the parties to which they belong, whatever party was responsible must be penalized when possible.

    OA : E
    The argument says that when all parties are involved in the scandal no particular member of any party suffers the consequences but when a single party is involved the incumbents belonging to that party suffers defeat in the hand of the challengers."E" says that an incumbent is the member of a party. If the party is scandalised it does not imply each and every single incumbent is involved in the scandal or vice versa if the incumbent is to be blamed for the scandal then since the incumbent is the part of a party the whole party takes the responsibility.

    Seeking re-election means the incumbent who is currently in office wants to serve another term.

    Returned to office means that they have been re-elected.

    The Daisygen Company genetically engineers flowers which are then sent to retailers in locations around the world. By splicing a rose with a species of onion they managed to create a flower that looks like the classic, and still very popular, red rose, but that takes much longer to wilt. A longer expiration period presents an important advantage to international flower importers and to individual consumers. Clearly, sales of the Daisygen rose will outnumber those of the original rose species.
    Which of the following is an assumption underlying the conclusion?
    A. The genes which were spliced into the rose are not also responsible for the onion's tearing effect.
    B. Consumers are interested in a flower that will last longer.
    C. Plastic flowers have not affected the import and export of natural flowers.
    D. Although extremely popular, the original rose was not the highest selling flower species of all.
    E. A longer expiration period will allow importers more time for delivery of the Daisygen roses.

    OA= A
    B is wrong because B is incomplete assumption. The complete B is: Consumers are interested in a flower that does not have new weaknesses and will last longer (new advantage). Thus, B exposes weakness for criticism and is incorrect assumption.
    A- To conclude sales of new roses will outnumber those of the original roses, the new roses MUST NOT create disadvantages that the original roses do not have.

    For a trade embargo against a particular country to succeed, a high degree of both international accord and ability to prevent goods from entering or leaving that country must be sustained. A total blockade of Patria’s ports is necessary to an embargo, but such an action would be likely to cause international discord over the embargo.The claims above, if true, most strongly support which of the following conclusions?
    (A) The balance of opinion is likely to favor Patria in the event of a blockade.
    (B) As long as international opinion is unanimously against Patria, a trade embargo is likely to succeed.
    (C) A naval blockade of Patria’s ports would ensure that no goods enter or leave Patria.
    (D) Any trade embargo against Patria would be likely to fail at some time.
    (E) For a blockade of Patria’s ports to be successful, international opinion must be unanimous.

    OA - D
    A. It is in contradiction to the statements as the argument implies favor towards other countries.
    B. There is nothing mentioned in the argument which would favor the succession.
    C. Nowhere is it mentioned that the means of trade is only through ports.
    E. Even though the opinion is unanimous, it is already said that it would cause discord.
    D. Considering the discord that would be caused, it can be inferred that the embargo may fail some time later.

    In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average number of children per family is five and over-population is a threat. Programs to encourage birth-control have been ineffective. It has been suggested that this failure is due to these programs ignoring a tradition that values male children very highly, so that every parent wants to have at least one son. It is proposed that couples be encouraged to use birth-control measures after the birth of their first son.
    If this proposal is widely accepted in the culture, we may expect that:
    (A) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
    (B) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and the gender balance in future generations will remain as it is at present.
    (C) the rate of population growth will remain the same, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
    (D) there will be no significant effect either on population growth or on gender balance.
    (E) the population will decline precipitously, because approximately half of all families will have only a single child.

    Here wish and precaution measurement cause same effect .
    parents wish to have at-least one son , after that they would like to stop .
    and proposal also does the same thing allowing every parent to take at-least one son before the take birth control measurement so OA=B

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