Gyan Room - Algebra



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    This thread is reserved for sharing concepts, short cuts and good questions from Algebra topic.

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    Rules:

    1. Mention source (if required)
    2. Provide examples for short-cuts
    3. Posts not related to Algebra will be removed.

  • QA/DILR Mentor | Be Legend


    Cauchy-Schwarz states that:
    (x1² + x2² + x3²)(y1² + y2² + y3²) ≥ (x1y1 + x2y2 + x3y3)², for real xi and yj

    Problem 1:
    If a, b, c ,d are real numbers with a² + b² + c² + d² = 100, then what is the maximum value of 2a + 3b + 6c + 24d.
    Ans --> Using Cauchy-Schwarz, we can say
    (a² + b² + c² + d²)(2² + 3² + 6² + 24²) ≥ (2a + 3b + 6c + 24d)²
    (100)(625) ≥ (2a + 3b + 6c + 24d)²
    So, 2a + 3b + 6c + 24d ≤ 250

    Problem 2:
    Find the least value of x² + 4y² + 9z², if x + y + z = 14
    Ans --> {x² + (2y)² + (3z)²}{1 + (1/2)² + (1/3)²} ≥ {x + 2y(1/2) + 3z(1/3)}²
    => (x² + 4y² + 9z²) ≥ (x + y + z)²/{1 + (1/2) + (1/3)}²
    => (x² + 4y² + 9z²) ≥ 196/(49/36)
    => (x² + 4y² + 9z²) ≥ 144

    Problem 3:
    If x² + y² - 6x + 4y = 4, find the maximum value of 3x + 4y.
    Ans --> Given equation is: (x-3)² + (y+2)² = 9
    Using Cauchy Schwarz, we get
    [(x - 3)² + (y + 2)²][3² + 4²] ≥ [3(x - 3) + 4(y + 2]²
    9 * 25 ≥ (3x + 4y -1)²
    3x + 4y -1 ≤ 15
    3x + 4y ≤ 16


  • Director at ElitesGrid | CAT 2016 - QA : 99.94, LR-DI - 99.70% / XAT 2017 - QA : 99.975


    How many Integral Solution : |x-7| + |y| < = 10 , y > = 0

    Method 1 :

    |x - 7| + |y | < = 10
    let x - 7 > = 0
    x - 7 + y < = 10
    so x + y < = 17
    here x > = 7
    so put x = 7 + a
    so 7 + a + y < = 17
    so a + y < = 10
    so when a = 0 then y < = 10 so 11 values
    when a = 1 then y < = 9 so 10 values
    .
    .
    when a = 7 then 4 values
    when a = 8 then y < = 2 so
    when a = 9 then y < = 1
    so 2 values

    when a = 10 then y < = 0 so 1 values
    1 + 2 + 3 ... 11 = 11 * 6 = 66 values

    now when 0 < = x < = 6
    so -x + 7 + y < = 10
    so -x + y < = 3
    y - x < = 3
    so y < = x + 3
    so when x = 0 then y < = 3 so 4 values
    when x = 1 then 5 values
    tlll x = 6 where 10 values
    so 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 = 49
    now when x < 0
    so - x + 7 + y < = 10
    so - x + y < = 3
    so y < = x + 3
    when x=-1 then y < = 2 so 3 values
    when x=-2 then y < = 1 so 2 values
    x= -3 y < = 0 so 1 values so 6 value total
    66 + 49 + 6 = 66 + 55 = 121 values

    Method 2 = |x - 7| + |Y| + k =10
    12c2= 66
    as |x - 7| can take -ve values 66 * 2 = 132
    now subtract cases when x - 7 = 0 so |y| < = 10 so 11 values will be removed so 132 - 11 = 121

    Method 3:

    0_1506315716186_2ff392df-1655-435a-ae9d-fc29c7dd4f95-21762177_858045301036396_6576217439975550153_n.jpg


  • www.handakafunda.com | IIT Kharagpur


    If a + b + c + d = 20, how many unique, non-negative integer solutions exist for (a, b, c, d)?

    Let us try and understand the concept behind solving such questions.

    This is like distributing 20 identical chocolates between 4 kids A, B, C, and D. You arrange these 20 chocolates in a line

    C C C C … C

    Now, you put in partitions in between them. Let me denote the partitions with P

    C C C P C P C C C C C P C C C C C C C C C C C

    A gets the chocolates before the first partition, B gets the chocolates between the first two partitions, C gets the chocolates between the second and the third partition and D gets the chocolate after the third partition. In the arrangement shown above A gets 3 chocolates, B gets 1, C gets 5, and D gets 11. Any rearrangement of the above, will lead to a new distribution of chocolates.

    The above can be rearranged in 23! / 20! 3! We got this because there are a total of 23 entities out of which 20 Cs are identical and 3 Ps are identical.

    Now, to extend this concept, what if we have to distribute ‘n’ chocolates in ‘r’ kids. After putting the n chocolates in a line, we would need r - 1 partitions. This would mean that there will be a total of n+r-1 entities out of which n would be identical (of one type) and the other r - 1 would be identical as well (of another type). So, the number of ways in which that would be possible = (n + r - 1)! / n! (r-1)!

    This, in other words, is (n + r - 1) C (r - 1)

    And now, we can use this formula to solve any similar questions

    a + b + c + d = 20

    Case 1: a, b, c, d are non-negative integers.

    Number of solutions = (20 + 4 - 1) C (4 - 1) = 23 C 3 = 1771

    Case 2: a, b, c, d are positive integers

    We allocate at least a value of 1 to a, b, c, d.

    So, we can say a = a’ + 1, b = b’ + 1, c = c’ + 1, d = d’ + 1 where a’, b’ c’, d’ are non-negative integers

    => a’ + 1 + b’ + 1 + c’ + 1 + d’ + 1 = 20

    => a’ + b’ + c’ + d’ = 16

    => Number of solutions = (16 + 4 - 1) C (4 - 1) = 19 C 3

    Case 3: a, b, c, d are non-negative integers such that a > 5 and b > 2

    We allocate at least a value of 5 to a and 2 to b

    So, a = a’ + 5 and b = b’ + 2

    => a’ + 5 + b’ + 2 + c + d = 20

    => a’ + b’ + c + d = 13

    => Number of solutions = (13 + 4 - 1) C ( 4 - 1) = 16 C 3

    Case 4: a, b, c, d are non-negative integer such that a > b

    Let us first consider the situation where a = b

    If a = b = 0, c + d = 20. This has 21 solutions

    If a = b = 1, c + d = 18. This has 19 solutions

    If a = b = 2, c + d = 16. This has 17 solutions

    .

    .

    If a = b = 10, c + d = 0. This has 1 solution

    So, the total number of a solutions when a = b is 21 + 19 + 17 … + 1 = 11/2*(21 + 1) = 121

    We know that the number of solutions when a, b, c, and d are non-negative integers is 1771. Out of these 1771 cases, in 121 cases a = b.

    So, in 1771 - 121 = 1650 cases a is not equal to b.

    In half of the above cases a will be greater than b whereas in the other half of the cases a will be less than b.

    So, number of solutions where a > b is 1650/2 = 825


  • www.handakafunda.com | IIT Kharagpur


    Equation type: Ax + By = C

    Few rules to find integral solutions of this type of equations.

    First, reduce the equation in lowest reducible form.
    After reducing, if coefficients of x and y still have a common factor, the equation will have no solutions.
    If x and y are co-prime in the lowest reducible form, find any one integral solution. The rest of the solutions can be derived from that integral solution.
    For each successive integral solutions of the equation, the value x and y will change by a coefficient of the other variable .If the equation is of the type Ax – By=C (after getting the lowest reducible form) ,an increase in x will cause increase in y .If the equation is of the type Ax + By=C,an increase in x will cause a decrease in y.

    Let us take an example.

    2x + 3y = 39.

    Step-1.The equation is already in its reduced form and we can see that coefficients of x and y are co-prime.

    Step-2.For a given equation, you should start substituting values (by hit and trial) for the variable that has larger coefficient to find out first integral solution. In this case, it is y. Now, if we take y = 0, we will get x = 39/2(not an integer). Again, if we take y=1, we will get x = 18. So, (18,1) is our first solution.

    Step-3.If you understand the 4th point mentioned above, at one of any two consecutive integral values of y, the value of x will come out to be an integer OR at one of the 3 consecutive values of x, the value of ywill come out to be an integer. That means, if we add 2n (where n is an integer) to the first value for y, we will have to subtract 3n from the first value of x to get integral solutions. That means,
    If y =1 +2(1) = 3 , x= 18-3(1) = 15.
    If y= 1 + 2(2) = 5, x= 18 – 3(2) = 12.
    If y= 1 + 2(3) = 7, x = 18 – 3(3) = 9 and so on.

    Step-4.This equation will have infinite number of integral solutions but finite number of non-negative integral solutions. Let’s see how we can find it.

    We can keep increasing the value of y in the positive direction but x will be decreasing simultaneously and become less than 0 at one point. As lowest non negative integral value of y is 1,highest allowable positive value of x is 18 and it is decreasing by 3. So, x can take 7 non negative integral values and they are- 18, 15, 12, 9, 6, 3 and 0.Hence the given equation has 7 non negative integral values.

    Note: In equation Ax + By = C, if C is divisible by any of A or B, then number of non-negative integral solutions = {C/LCM(A,B)} + 1


  • www.handakafunda.com | IIT Kharagpur


    Equation type: |x| + |y| = n

    Let |x| = p and |y| = q, then positive integral solutions= n-1C2-1= n-1.
    Now, for each solution (x1,y1), there would exist 4 values for x and y, They are ->
    (x1,y1), (-x1,y1), (x1,-y1) and (-x1,-y1).
    Therefore, total number of positive integral solutions = 4(n-1).



  • Type 1 : |x| + |y| = n
    Total solutions = 4n.

    Example : |x| + |y| = 5.
    Total solutions = 4 x 5 = 20.

    Type 2 : |x| + |y| + |z| = n.
    Total solutions = 4n^2 + 2.

    Example : |x| + |y| + |z| = 15.
    Total solutions = 4 x 15^2 + 2 = 902.

    Type 3 : |x| + |y| + |z| + |w| = n.
    Total solutions = (8/3)n(n^2 +2).

    Example : |x| + |y| + |z| + |w| = 9.
    Total solutions = (8/3) x 3 x (3^2 +2 )
    = 8 x 11
    = 88.

    Type 4 : ax + by = n.
    Non negative solutions = n/LCM (a,b) + 1. if either a or b is divided by n.
    For positive solutions just remove x=0,y=0 from non negative solution.

    Example : 2x + 3y = 30.
    positive integral solutions
    = 30 / LCM (2,3) - 1
    = 5 - 1 = 4.

    Read more @ https://www.mbatious.com/topic/181/number-of-integral-non-negative-positive-solutions-vikas-saini



  • Type : a x b = N
    no of positive solution = no of factors of N.
    no of integrated solution =2 x no of factors of N.

    Example : a x b = 36.
    36 = 2^2 x 3^2.
    total no of factors = (2+1)(2+1) = 9.
    positive solution = 9.
    total solution = 2 x 9 = 18.
    Here multiply by 2 because even negative sign also contains in total solution.


  • Being MBAtious!


    Credits : @Soumya-Chakraborty

    What is total number of positive integral solutions for (x, y, z) such that xyz=24?

    There's a strong formula, famously known as the stars and bars algorithm, which simplifies this solution for any product.

    I'll just detail the solution once I've explained the formula. It's used, ideally, for counting the number of ways of distributing 'n' identical balls into 'r' different boxes. The number of ways of doing that is (n+r-1)C(r-1). The formula can be easily remembered but hardly the applications understood. Let's understand what is the primary difference between distributing 'n' IDENTICAL balls and 'n' DISTINCT balls. The idea behind DISTINCT balls is that in this case, not only how many balls go into a particular box matter, but also WHICH ones matter. But when they are IDENTICAL balls, only thing that matters is how many goes into a specific box.

    Here XYZ =24 = 2^3 * 3

    So, we have three identical 2s to distribute into three boxes (X,Y,Z). The number of ways of doing that would be (3 + 3 - 1)C(3-1) = 5C2 = 10 ways.

    Correspondingly, the number of ways of distributing the 3 into the three boxes must be 3 ways

    So, we have a total of 10 * 3 = 30 ways of distributing


  • Director at ElitesGrid | CAT 2016 - QA : 99.94, LR-DI - 99.70% / XAT 2017 - QA : 99.975


    a/x + b/y = 1/k where a, b and k are positive integers and we want number of value of (x,y) satisfying this equation
    Approach -
    First find number of factors of a * b * k^2
    let number of factors = M
    a) total number of positive integral solutions = M
    b) total integral solutions = 2 * M - 1
    c) Total number of negative solution= zero (if both x and y will be negative than lhs will be negative but rhs is positive so not possible )


  • Being MBAtious!


    Area bounded by the curves |ax +/- m | = p and |by +/- n| = q is 4pq/ab sq units
    Area bounded by |ax +/- m| + |by +/- n| = k is 2k^2/(ab)
    Area bounded by |ax + by| = k and |ax - by| = k is 2k^2/ab
    Area bounded by |ax + by| + |ax - by| = k is k^2/(ab)

    For detailed explanation - refer https://www.mbatious.com/topic/922/area-of-the-region-bounded-by-the-curves-concepts-shortcuts


  • QA/DILR Mentor | Be Legend


    A quadratic function f (x ) = ax^2 + bx + c, can be expressed in the standard form : a(x-h)^2 + k
    by completing the square. The graph of f(x) is a parabola with vertex (h,k); the parabola opens upward if a > 0 or downward if a < 0.

    Maximum or Minimum Value of a Quadratic Function

    Let f be a quadratic function with standard form f (x) = a( x − h )^2 + k.
    The maximum or minimum value of f occurs at x = h
    If a > 0, then the minimum value of f is f(h) = k.
    If a < 0, then the maximum value of is f (h) = k

    We now derive a formula for the maximum or minimum of the quadratic function
    F(x) = ax^2 + bx + c.
    For either of the two cases (the quadratic having a maxima or a minima), the maxima or the minima,
    as the case may be, will occur when x = - b/2a
    the maximum or minimum value is f(-b/2a) = c - b^2/4a
    remember that - b/2a = sum of roots/2


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