Question Bank - Solved RC Questions - Sriram Krishnan, Learningroots


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    Number of sets - 5
    Topic - Reading Comprehension
    Answer Key available - Yes (With detailed solution)
    Source - Learningroots forum (#rcoftheday)


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    RC - 1

    While space looks empty, it is in fact filled with matter. In 1933, Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky coined the term “dark matter” to identify the substance that makes up an estimated 85% of all matter in the universe. Ever since, however, the search for the particles that compose dark matter has been ongoing with hypotheses and projections filling the minds of determined physicists in search of a breakthrough.

    Among the most promising hypotheses is one that includes neutralinos, a proposed particle akin to the Higgs Boson particle as a building block of the universe we know. Neutralinos, it is proposed, will annihilate each other when they collide, producing both a matter and an antimatter equivalent (an electron and a positron, respectively). In such a reaction, each particle would carry with it as much energy as one neutralino has mass (per Einstein’s theory of relativity), and this energy may well provide the means for which scientists can finally identify these sought-after particles.

    The plausibility of this theory has galvanized support in the scientific community for extensive research. Aboard the International Space Station lies the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), which is using magnetized sensors to identify the charges that would come along with these proposed particles. As it measures charges across space, AMS focuses on the variance of the ratio of positrons to electrons, under the theory that the “positron fraction” should peak when these high-energy positrons are created from dark-matter annihilation. To date, AMS has recorded over 30 billion cosmic rays and research indicates that it has indeed viewed hundreds of thousands of charged particles consistent with the theory of positrons. But scientists remain stoic on the issue, noting that these charges are potentially also consistent with those released by pulsars, the aftermath of exploded stars. Accordingly, research continues to better delineate between the positron fraction expected from pulsars and that from neutralinos.

    1. Which of the following best summarizes the primary purpose of the passage?
      A. To compare the search for neutralinos with that for the Higgs Boson
      B. To detail the current hypotheses regarding the origin of dark matter
      C. To prove that positrons are created from dark matter annihilation
      D. To present a hypothesis to explain a mysterious scientific phenomenon
      E. To explain the results of a current scientific research study

    2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
      A. The highest positron fractions that AMS records will be from dark matter particles.
      B. Electrons and positrons carry approximately the same amount of energy.
      C. AMS has been able to view hundreds of thousands of positrons.
      D. The charges emitted by pulsars are indistinguishable from the charges emitted by positrons.
      E. The neutralino hypothesis is currently accepted as the most plausible existing explanation for dark matter.

    3. According to the passage, scientists theorize that dark matter is created when
      A. The positron fraction reaches its peak value
      B. Pulsars result as the remnants of stellar explosion
      C. Positrons release the same amount of energy as a neutralino has mass
      D. Neutralinos collide with one another
      E. Highly charged electrons annihilate positrons


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    1-D 2-B 3-D

    1. B is the most common incorrect answer. The word 'hypotheses' is plural which is incorrect. In the passage, we are mainly talking about only 1 hypothesis which is what D says
    2. Relevant part of the passage - "In such a reaction, each particle would carry with it as much energy as one neutralino has mass ". Because of this, B is the answer.
    3. One of the hypotheses for the origin of dark matter is the nuetralino theory in which nuetralinos collide. Clearly D is the answer.

  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    RC - 2

    Certain variants of key behavioural genes, “risk allele” make people more vulnerable to certain mood, psychiatric, or personality disorders. An allele is any of the variants of a gene that takes more than one form. A risk allele, then, is simply a gene variant that increases your likelihood of developing a problem.

    Researchers have identified a dozen-odd gene variants that can increase a person’s susceptibility to depression, anxiety, and antisocial, sociopathic, or violent behaviours, and other problems—if, and only if, the person carrying the variant suffers a traumatic or stressful childhood or faces particularly trying experiences later in life. This hypothesis, often called the “stress diathesis” or “genetic vulnerability” model, has come to saturate psychiatry and behavioural science.

    Recently, however, an alternate hypothesis has emerged from this one and is turning it inside out. This new model suggests that it’s a mistake to understand these “risk” genes only as liabilities. According to this new thinking, these ‘bad genes’ can create dysfunction in unfavourable contexts—but they can also enhance function in favourable contexts. The genetic sensitivities to negative experience that the vulnerability hypothesis has identified, it follows, are just the downside of a bigger phenomenon: a heightened genetic sensitivity to all experience.

    This hypothesis has been anticipated by Swedish folk wisdom which has long spoken of “dandelion” children. These dandelion children—equivalent to our “normal” or “healthy” children, with “resilient” genes—do pretty well almost anywhere, whether raised in the equivalent of a 10 sidewalk crack or a well-tended garden. There are also “orchid” children, who will wilt if ignored or maltreated but bloom spectacularly with greenhouse care. According to this orchid hypothesis, risk becomes possibility; vulnerability becomes plasticity and responsiveness. Gene variants generally considered misfortunes can instead now be understood as highly leveraged evolutionary bets, with both high risks and high potential rewards.

    In this view, having both dandelion and orchid kids greatly raises a family’s (and a species’) chance of succeeding, over time and in any given environment. The behavioural diversity provided by these two different types of temperament also supplies precisely what a smart, strong species needs if it is to spread across and dominate a changing world. The many dandelions in a population provide an underlying stability. The less-numerous orchids, meanwhile, may falter in some environments but can excel in those that suit them. And even when they lead troubled early lives, some of the resulting heightened responses to adversity that can be problematic in everyday life— increased novelty-seeking, restlessness of attention, elevated risk-taking, or aggression—can prove advantageous in certain challenging situations: wars, social strife of many kinds, and migrations to new environments. Together, the steady dandelions and the mercurial orchids offer an adaptive flexibility that neither can provide alone. Together, they open a path to otherwise unreachable individual and collective achievements.

    1. The passage suggests ‘orchids’:
      A. are insufficient in number.
      B. are limited to greenhouses.
      C. end up weaker as compared to dandelions.
      D. thrive in anaesthetised conditions.
      E. are always too delicate to survive.

    2. Which of the following statements correctly echoes the author’s view?
      A. Persons carrying risk allele end up being self-destructive and antisocial.
      B. Orchids possess humankind’s phenomenal adaptability and evolutionary success.
      C. With a bad environment and poor parenting, all children will have a normal life.
      D. Children born with genetic vulnerability need not necessarily be sociopaths.
      E. Genes not only makes you sensitive to disorders, but are also responsible for failures of societies.

    3. The word ‘diathesis’ means:
      A. susceptible to disease
      B. two-pronged hypothesis
      C. connected with two kidneys
      D. missing parts of the body
      E. living in two different environments

    4. Mr. Good and Mr. Evil were batch-mates during the college. Five years after graduating, Mr. Evil was put behind bars for financial fraud while Mr. Good was running a successful NGO, working for orphans. Mr. Good was raised in a protective environment while Mr. Evil was a self-made man. Based on the above information, which of the following statements is definitely correct?
      A. It can be concluded that Mr. Evil is a ‘dandelion’, but nothing can be concluded about Mr. Good.
      B. It can be concluded that Mr. Evil is an ‘orchid’, but nothing can be concluded about Mr. Good.
      C. It can be concluded that Mr. Good is a ‘dandelion’, but nothing can be concluded about Mr. Evil.
      D. It can be concluded that both Mr. Good and Mr. Evil are ‘orchid’.
      E. It is not possible to conclude about ‘children typology’ of the two batch mates.


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    1-D 2-D 3-A 4-E

    1. Relevant part of the passage - “orchid” children, who will wilt if ignored or maltreated but bloom spectacularly with greenhouse care
    2. The passage clearly mentions that children born with genetic vulnerability need not necessarily be sociopaths. They can prosper with sufficient care.
    3. Means disease. Can get a hint based on the context in which it is used.
    4. 2 things are needed to determine whether the child is an orchid or a dandelion - genes and environment. The question only talks about environment and not about genes. Hence, E

  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    RC - 3

    Human beings, born with a drive to explore and experiment, thrive on learning. Unfortunately, corporations are oriented predominantly toward controlling employees, not fostering their learning. Ironically, this orientation creates the very conditions that predestine employees to mediocre performances. Over time, superior performance requires superior learning, because long-term corporate survival depends on continually exploring new business and organizational opportunities that can create new sources of growth.

    To survive in the future, corporations must become “learning organizations,” enterprises that are constantly able to adapt and expand their capabilities. To accomplish this, corporations must change how they view employees. The traditional view that a single charismatic leader should set the corporation’s direction and make key decisions is rooted in an individualistic worldview. In an increasingly interdependent world, such a view is no longer viable. in learning organizations, thinking and acting are integrated at all job levels. Corporate leadership is shared, and leaders become designers, teachers, and stewards, roles requiring new skills: the ability to build shared vision, to reveal and challenge prevailing mental models, and to foster broader, more integrated patterns of thinking. in short, leaders in learning organizations are responsible for building organizations in which employees are continually learning new skills and expanding their capabilities to shape their future.

    1. According to the passage, traditional corporate leaders differ from leaders in learning organizations in that former
      a) Encourage employees to concentrate on developing a wide range of skills
      b) Enable employees to recognize and confront dominant corporate models and to develop alternative models
      c) Make important policy decisions alone and then require employees in the corporation to abide by those decisions
      d) Instill confidence in employees because of their willingness to make risky decisions and accept their consequences
      e) Are concerned with offering employees frequent advice and career guidance

    2. Which of the following best describes employees behavior encouraged within learning organizations, as such organizations are described in the passage?
      a) Carefully defining one's job description and taking care to avoid deviation from it
      b) Designing mentoring programs that train new employees to follow procedures that have been used for many years
      c) Concentrating one`s efforts on mastering one aspect of a complicated task
      d) Studying an organizational problem, preparing a report, and submitting it to a corporate leader for approval
      e) Analyzing a problem related to productivity, making a decision about a solution , and implementing that solution

    3. According to the author of the passage, corporate leaders of the future should do which of the following
      a) They should encourage employees put long-term goals ahead of short-term profits
      b) They should exercise more control over employees in order to constrain production costs
      c) They should redefine incentives for employees' performance improvement
      d) They should provide employees with opportunities to gain new skills and expand their capabilities
      e) They should promote individual managers who are committed to established company practices

    4. The primary purpose of the passage is to
      a) endorse a traditional corporate structure
      b) introduce a new approach to corporate leadership and evaluate criticisms of it
      c) explain competing theories about management practices and reconcile them
      d) contrast two typical corporate organizational structures
      e) propose an alternative to a common corporate approach


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    1-C 2-E 3-D 4-E

    1. Don't miss the 'former' at the end of the question. You want an option that talks about traditional leaders. Clearly, C is the answer based on the passage.
    2. In a learning organization, thinking and acting are integrated at all levels. Hence, no approval per se is required. Clearly E.
    3. Relevant part of the passage - 'in short, leaders in learning organizations are responsible for building organizations in which employees are continually learning new skills and expanding their capabilities to shape their future.'
    4. B is not the answer here as the author doesn't criticize learning organizations anywhere in the passage. By elimination, E is the answer.

  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    RC - 4

    Around 1960, mathematician Edward Lorenz found unexpected behavior in apparently simple equations representing atmospheric air flows. Whenever he reran his model with the same inputs, different outputs resulted—although the model lacked any random elements. Lorenz realized that tiny rounding errors in his analog computer mushroomed over time, leading to erratic results. His findings marked a seminal moment in the development of chaos theory, which, despite its name, has little to do with randomness.

    To understand how unpredictability can arise from deterministic equations, which do not involve chance outcomes, consider the non-chaotic system of two poppy seeds placed in a round bowl. As the seeds roll to the bowl's center, a position known as a point attractor, the distance between the seeds shrinks. If, instead, the bowl is flipped over, two seeds placed on top will roll away from each other. Such a system, while still not technically chaotic, enlarges initial differences in position.

    Chaotic systems, such as a machine mixing bread dough, are characterized by both attraction and repulsion. As the dough is stretched, folded and pressed back together, any poppy seeds sprinkled in are intermixed seemingly at random. But this randomness is illusory. In fact, the poppy seeds are captured by "strange attractors," staggeringly complex pathways whose tangles appear accidental but are in fact determined by the system's fundamental equations.

    During the dough-kneading process, two poppy seeds positioned next to each other eventually go their separate ways. Any early divergence or measurement error is repeatedly amplified by the mixing until the position of any seed becomes effectively unpredictable. It is this "sensitive dependence on initial conditions" and not true randomness that generates unpredictability in chaotic systems, of which one example may be the Earth's weather. According to the popular interpretation of the "Butterfly Effect," a butterfly flapping its wings causes hurricanes. A better understanding is that the butterfly causes uncertainty about the precise state of the air. This microscopic uncertainty grows until it encompasses even hurricanes. Few meteorologists believe that we will ever be able to predict rain or shine for a particular day years in the future.

    1. The main purpose of this passage is to
      (A) Explain complicated aspects of certain physical systems
      (B) trace the historical development of scientific theory
      (C) distinguish a mathematical patter from its opposition
      (D) describe the spread of a technical model from one field of study to others
      (E) contrast possible causes of weather phenomena

    2. In the example discussed in the passage, what is true about poppy seeds in bread dough, once the dough has been thoroughly mixed?
      (A) They have been individually stretched and folded over, like miniature versions of the entire dough
      (B) They are scattered in random clumps throughout the dough
      (C) They are accidentally caught in tangled objects called strange attractors
      (D) They are bound to regularly dispersed patterns of point attractors
      (E) They are positions dictated by the underlying equations that govern the mixing process

    3. According to the passage, the rounding errors in Lorenz's model
      (A) Indicated that the model was programmed in a fundamentally faulty way
      (B) were deliberately included to represent tiny fluctuations in atmospheric air currents
      (C) were imperceptibly small at first, but tended to grow
      (D) were at least partially expected, given the complexity of the actual atmosphere
      (E) shrank to insignificant levels during each trial of the model

    4. The passage mentions each of the following as an example of potential example of chaotic or non-chaotic system Except
      (A) a dough-mixing machine
      (B) atmospheric weather patters
      (C) poppy seeds place on top of an upside-down bowl
      (D) poppy seeds placed in a right-side up bowl
      (E) fluctuating butterfly flight patterns

    5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following pairs of items would most likely follow typical pathways within a chaotic system?
      (A) two particles ejected in random directions from the same decaying atomic nucleus
      (B) two stickers affixed to balloon that expands and contracts over and over again
      (C) two avalanches sliding down opposite sides of the same mountain
      (D) two baseballs placed into an active tumble dryer
      (E) two coins flipped into a large bowl

    RC Source: Manhattan


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    1-A, 2-E, 3-C, 4-E, 5-D

    1. Can be found by POE. D is the most common incorrect answer. In the passage, we are not talking about the spread of the model from one field to another (for instance, from Maths to Physics, etc.)
    2. E - straight from the passage
    3. C - again straight from the passage
    4. E - The chaotic system mentioned in the last paragraph is the earth's weather and not butterfly wing patterns.
    5. The example of a chaotic system mentioned in the passage is a machine mixing bread dough. Poppy seeds sprinkled will be pressed back and forth and are also mixed at random. Among the answer options, choose the answer that matches this machine the most. Clearly has to be the tumble dryer, where the baseballs will be pressed back and forth and will also be mixed at random

  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    RC - 5

    The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition” to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking.

    Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.

    Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns.

    One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.

    Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.

    1. According to the passage, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to
      (A) speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem
      (B) identify a problem
      (C) bring together disparate facts
      (D) stipulate clear goals
      (E) evaluate possible solutions to a problem

    2. The passage suggests which of the following about the writers on management mentioned in the paragraph?
      (A) They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis.
      (B) They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers.
      (C) They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do.
      (D) They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions.
      (E) They have not acknowledged the role of intuition in managerial practice.

    3. Which of the following best exemplifies an Aha! experience as it is presented in the passage?
      (A) A manager risks taking an action whose outcome is unpredictable to discover whether the action changes the problem at hand.
      (B) A manager performs well-learned and familiar behavior patterns in creative and uncharacteristic ways to solve a problem.
      (C) A manager suddenly connects seemingly unrelated facts and experiences to create a pattern relevant to the problem at hand.
      (D) A manager rapidly identifies the methodology used to compile data yielded by systematic analysis.
      (E) A manager swiftly decides which of several sets of tactics to implement in order to deal with the contingencies suggested by a problem.

    4. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
      (A) evaluation of a problem
      (B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
      (C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
      (D) action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem
      (E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem

    5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
      (A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
      (B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
      (C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
      (D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
      (E) Manager Y depends on day-to-day tactical maneuvering; Manager X does not.

    6. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
      (A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
      (B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
      (C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
      (D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
      (E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    DDCDCE

    1. 3rd paragraph is the relevant part. Look for the 5 ways mentioned. From the options, only D is not talked about.
    2. Relevant part of the passage - 'In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is'. Clearly D
    3. Relevant part of the passage - 'A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience'. So C
    4. Action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem will be done by an intuitive manager. So D
    5. From the 4th paragraph - "Since (intuitive) managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later". So C
    6. Relevant part of the passage - 'Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills.' Hence E

  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    RC - 6

    Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, such as tremors, are thought to be caused by low dopamine levels in the brain. Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease are primarily reactionary, aiming to replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died. Without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamine-producing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients.

    Recent research provides insight into the inner workings of dopamine-producing neurons, and may lead to a new drug treatment that would proactively protect the neurons from decay. By examining the alpha-synuclein protein in yeast cells, scientists have determined that toxic levels of the protein have a detrimental effect on protein transfer within the cell. More specifically, high levels of alpha-synuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production in the cell, to the Golgi apparatus, the component of the cell that modifies and sorts the proteins before sending them to their final destinations within the cell. When the smooth transfer of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is interrupted, the cell dies.

    With this in mind, researchers conducted a genetic screen in yeast cells in order to identify any gene that works to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synuclein in the cell. Researchers discovered that such a gene does in fact exist, and have located the genetic counterpart in mammalian nerve cells, or neurons. This discovery has led to new hopes that drug therapy could potentially activate this gene, thereby suppressing the toxicity of alpha-synuclein in dopamine-producing neurons.

    While drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein has been examined in yeast, fruitflies, roundworms, and cultures of rat neurons, researchers are hesitant to conclude that such therapies will prove successful on human patients. Alpha-synuclein toxicity seems to be one cause for the death of dopamine-producing neurons in Parkinson’s patients, but other causes may exist. Most scientists involved with Parkinson’s research do agree, however, that such promising early results provide a basis for further testing.

    1. It can be inferred from the passage that a yeast cell with toxic levels of alpha-synuclein will die because
      a. low levels of dopamine will disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi aparatus
      b. the gene that suppresses alpha-synuclein is missing or is not functioning properly in such yeast cells
      c. drug therapy has proven to be ineffective in yeast cells
      d.the normal distribution of proteins to the different cell components outside the Golgi apparatus will be affected
      e. alpha-synuclein is by nature a toxic protein

    2. One function of the third paragraph of the passage is to
      a. highlight the many similarities between yeast cells and mammalian nerve cells
      b. explain in detail the methods used to conduct a genetic screen in yeast cells
      c. further explain the roles of various cellular components of yeast cells
      d. identify the genes in yeast cells and mammalian nerve cells that work to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synuclein
      e. clarify the relevance of genetic testing in yeast cells to the search for a new treatment for Parkinson’s disease

    3. It can be inferred from the passage that current treatments of Parkinson’s Disease
      a. repair damaged cells by replenishing dopamine levels in the brain
      b. are ineffective in their treatment of Parkinson’s symptoms, such as tremors
      c. were developed without a complete understanding of dopamine-producing neurons
      d. will inevitably be replaced by new drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein toxicity
      e. were not developed through research on yeast cells

    Source: ManhattanPrep


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    1-D, 2-E, 3-C

    1. A is incorrect as the word 'low' is incorrect. Should have been high.

    2. The third paragraph makes the connection between the research mentioned in the 2nd para and the nuerons affected by Parkinsons. E fits best

    3. From the 1st paragraph - "without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamine producing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients". Clearly C


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    RC 7

    Source: Manhattan Prep

    The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity inspired an unusual degree of human interest from a public generally unconcerned about amphibians, may nevertheless have been driven to extinction by human activity. In the United States, a public relations campaign raised money to protect the toad’s habitat in Costa Rica, establishing the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in 1972. However, setting aside habitat was not enough to save the species. The toad's demise in the late 1980s was a harbinger of further species extinction in Costa Rica. Since that time, another twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit a 30 square kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared.

    Between one third and one half of the world’s amphibian species—including frogs, toads, and salamanders—have declined or disappeared. Scientists hypothesize that the more subtle effects of human activities on the world's ecosystems, such as the accretion of pollutants, the decrease in atmospheric ozone, and changing weather patterns due to global warming, are beginning to take their toll. Perhaps amphibians - whose permeable skin makes them unusually sensitive to environmental changes - are the biological harbingers of the natural world, giving humans early notification of the deterioration, if not destruction, of our ecosystem.

    1. It can be inferred from the discussion of amphibians that
      a. only thirty species of frogs and toads remain in Costa Rica
      b. relatively few non-amphibious animals have permeable skin
      c. most have either already become extinct or are in danger of extinction
      d. humans do not usually take signals of environmental deterioration seriously
      e. the extinction of so many amphibian species supports the contention that humans are responsible for the situation

    2. The passage implies that
      a. the Monteverde area may be home to toad or frog species that have not yet been noted by researchers
      b. the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve was not large enough to protect the golden toad
      c. only Costa Rican amphibians living near Monteverde have disappeared since the 1980s
      d. if amphibians did not have permeable skin, then they could not act as biological harbingers
      e. more than one third of the world’s amphibian species have become extinct

    3. The primary purpose of the passage is to
      a. discuss the disappearance of a particular species
      b. explain why a certain cause is to blame for a global phenomenon
      c. argue that a class of animals should be protected from decline or extinction
      d. describe the global decline of a class of animals and consider possible causes
      e. demonstrate the reasons for the demise of a particular species


  • CAT 100%iler, 5 times AIR 1, Director - Learningroots, Ex ITC, Pagalguy, TAS


    Answers: 1-B 2-A 3-D

    Quoting from the official explanation:

    1-B. The passage suggests that amphibians are “unusually sensitive” because of their permeable skin. Thus, permeable skin must be a relatively unusual characteristic, one not shared by many other animals.

    The first sentence of the second paragraph indicates that one third to one half of amphibians “have declined or disappeared.” In order to justify the word “most” in this answer choice, more than half would have had to decline or disappear. Hence, C is wrong.

    2-A The last sentence of the first paragraph says that a certain proportion of the species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit an area near Monteverde have disappeared. The language known to indicates that the author is hedging: a total of fifty species are known to live there, but others might exist that have not yet been found

    3-D The passage discusses the disappearance of amphibious populations worldwide and hypothesizes that negative effects on ecosystems resulting from human activity may be responsible for these disappearances.


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