@shashank_prabhu said in Question Bank - Solved RC Questions - Sriram Krishnan, Learningroots: RC - 6 Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, such as tremors, are thought to be caused by low dopamine levels in the brain. Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease are primarily reactionary, aiming to replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died. Without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamine-producing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients. Recent research provides insight into the inner workings of dopamine-producing neurons, and may lead to a new drug treatment that would proactively protect the neurons from decay. By examining the alpha-synuclein protein in yeast cells, scientists have determined that toxic levels of the protein have a detrimental effect on protein transfer within the cell. More specifically, high levels of alpha-synuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production in the cell, to the Golgi apparatus, the component of the cell that modifies and sorts the proteins before sending them to their final destinations within the cell. When the smooth transfer of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is interrupted, the cell dies.(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); With this in mind, researchers conducted a genetic screen in yeast cells in order to identify any gene that works to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synuclein in the cell. Researchers discovered that such a gene does in fact exist, and have located the genetic counterpart in mammalian nerve cells, or neurons. This discovery has led to new hopes that drug therapy could potentially activate this gene, thereby suppressing the toxicity of alpha-synuclein in dopamine-producing neurons. While drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein has been examined in yeast, fruitflies, roundworms, and cultures of rat neurons, researchers are hesitant to conclude that such therapies will prove successful on human patients. Alpha-synuclein toxicity seems to be one cause for the death of dopamine-producing neurons in Parkinson’s patients, but other causes may exist. Most scientists involved with Parkinson’s research do agree, however, that such promising early results provide a basis for further testing. It can be inferred from the passage that a yeast cell with toxic levels of alpha-synuclein will die becausea. low levels of dopamine will disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi aparatusb. the gene that suppresses alpha-synuclein is missing or is not functioning properly in such yeast cellsc. drug therapy has proven to be ineffective in yeast cellsd.the normal distribution of proteins to the different cell components outside the Golgi apparatus will be affectede. alpha-synuclein is by nature a toxic protein(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); One function of the third paragraph of the passage is toa. highlight the many similarities between yeast cells and mammalian nerve cellsb. explain in detail the methods used to conduct a genetic screen in yeast cellsc. further explain the roles of various cellular components of yeast cellsd. identify the genes in yeast cells and mammalian nerve cells that work to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synucleine. clarify the relevance of genetic testing in yeast cells to the search for a new treatment for Parkinson’s disease It can be inferred from the passage that current treatments of Parkinson’s Diseasea. repair damaged cells by replenishing dopamine levels in the brainb. are ineffective in their treatment of Parkinson’s symptoms, such as tremorsc. were developed without a complete understanding of dopamine-producing neuronsd. will inevitably be replaced by new drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein toxicitye. were not developed through research on yeast cells Source: ManhattanPrepFor 2 question options d also fits and according to your explanation nerve cell affected by Parkinson disease is discussed in third para while the nerve cell is where the gene found to reverse the level.